In the name of Allah The most gracious The most merciful
Defination of Salaat (prayer)
Linguistically, the word al-salaat means supplication. As Allah says,
“Supplicate on their behalf, verily your supplications are a source of security for them” (al-taubah 103).
Technically,the word al-salaat refers to specific statements and actions beginning with the takbeer (saying “Allahu akbar”) and ending with the taslim (salutations) with its particular prerequisites.
Type Of prayers:
The prayer is of two types: The Obligatory and voluntary prayers
The obligatory prayers are also divided into two categories;
(1) prayers obligatory upon each and every individual, these are the five daily prayers. As Allah says;
“Verily, the prayer are enjoined on the believers at stated times” (al-Nisaa 103)
(2) prayers only obligatory on the community as a whole.
This include the other obligatory prayers and aspects relating to prayer such as the call to prayer,the eclipse prayer and the funeral prayer
The essentail components (arkaan) of salaat prayer
There are fourteen essentail components of salah which may not be left,not intentionally,forgetfully or ignorantly
The essentail component (arkaan) differ from the obligatory acts (waajibat). If a person fails to perform the essentail components, under most circumstances it will be as if he did not perform the act at all. If a person fails to perform the obligatory acts, under some circumstances he may simply have to make up for those acts in another way.
1 Standing straight in the obligatory prayer for the one who has the ability to do so.
2 Saying the opening takbeer which is the statement “Allahu akbar” and nothing else surface for the beginning of the prayer.
3 Reciting soorah al-faatihah : Download Soorah Al-faatihah
4 The bow ( ruku )
5 Rising from the bow ( ruku ) and standing up straight
6 Prostration ( sujud )
7 Coming up from the prostration ( sujud ).
8 Sitting between the two acts of prostration ( sujud ).
9 Having calmness and stillness (in each of the acts of the prayer).
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10 Sitting for the final tashahud
11 The final tashahud
12 Saying the prayer for the prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him)
13 Saying the salutation ( Salam ). This is to say twice,”assalaam alaikum wa rahmatullahi (peace be upon you and the mercy of allah).” It is best not to add “wa baarakatuhu(and his blessing).”
14 Performing the above in correct order.
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The obligatory Acts (waajibat) of the prayer
there eight obligatory or waajibat acts of the prayer
1 The takbeers other than the opening takbeer.
2 Saying, “Sami-Allahu liman hamidah(Allah has heard him who praises Him),” for both the iman and the one who prays alone.
3 Saying, “Rabbanaa wa lakal-0hamd (our lord and tonyou is the praise).”
4 Saying, “Subhanna Rabbiyal -Adheem (Exalted and perfect is my Lord, the great),” at least once while bowing
5 Saying ,”Subhanna Rabbiyal -Ala (Exalted and perfect is my lord, the most high),” at least once while prostrating
6 Saying the first tashahud (for salah with more than one tashahud) .
7 Sitting for the first tashahud.
The prayer is nullified if any of this is left intentionally.But the prayer is not nullified if left forgetfully or ignorantly.
The prerequisites for the prayer
Shuroot (prerequisites, conditions) of salah are:
2 Being Muslim
3 Being Sane
4 Being at least of age of discernment
5 The time for the prayer having begun
6 Being in state of purity
7 Facing the qiblah
8 Covering the private parts
9 Being free of any physical impurities (on ones clothing or place where one is praying).
From the book Fiqh made easy
Source : Islamicline